English model Jasmine Sinclair.

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All three sub-principles are concerned with the role of other people’s attitudes in shaping a person’s self-esteem.  Though conceptually distinct, all these processes may produce the same positive or negative result.  Consider the example of a person who has cheated on a mate.  If this is met with contempt by others, low self-esteem may be the result of direct reflection.  If, on the other hand, the person infers that others feel contempt (perhaps because of avoidance or refusal to establish eye contact), when in fact they have a product of the perceived self.  Finally, if the person condemns her- or himself (with consequent reduction in self-esteem) because he or she has internalized the value system of significant others, or of society as a whole, then even though others are not directly involved, self attitudes still would be regulated by other people’s perspectives, or standpoints.

Social Comparison

The principle of social comparison is basic to self-esteem formation.  Human beings learn about themselves by comparing themselves to others.  This process leads to positive, neutral, or negative self-evaluations.  Two types of social comparison operate in the formation of self-esteem.  The first marks a person as superior or inferior to others, in terms of some criterion of excellence, merit, or virtue.  Brighter or duller, weaker or stronger, more good-looking or uglier – these are comparative labels requiring relative judgments, both about others and about the self.  The other type of social comparison is normative; it refers primarily to conformity or to deviance. The issue here is not whether one is better or worse, but whether one is the same or different.  For example, the adolescent reprimanded in the home for  nonconformity to certain rules or values is praised by his or her peers for the same behavior.  Conformity and deviance do not dwell in the behavior itself, but in its comparison to the norms of a particular social environment.

The principle of self-attribution relates to drawing evaluative conclusions about oneself, largely by observing one’s own behavior and its outcome.  Persons can judge that they have done something brilliant and conclude they are worthwhile because of it.  An example is the seminarian who consistently does well in preaching and consequently concludes that he is a good preacher.  This conclusion is reached primarily not by consulting his inner experience, but by observing his behavior and its outcome.

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About georgehach

I am a retired Lay Minister, acting as a prophet for God to understand the end times that is comingg and how to prepare for it.
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